1 February 1999
demand charges fully accounted for. BPA has stated in writing that adequate power will be
available for housing in the foreseeable future. Use thermostats with a maximum setting of 24
degrees C (75 degrees F) throughout the housing project.
(2) Small Remote Facilities. Electric resistance heating may be used where all of the
following criteria are met:
the individual facility (total building) heating load is less than 4 kW (15,000 Btu per hour)
provided natural gas is not available within a reasonable distance;
the facility has a maximum total energy consumption of less than 190 kilowatt-hrs per
square meter (60,000 Btu per square foot) per year (nominal 40-hour week use) or less than
1,340,00 kJ per square meter (118,000 Btu per square foot) per year (around-the-clock
the facility is equipped with thermostats with a maximum setting of 24 degrees C (75
degrees F) and a positive cutoff above 18 degrees C (65 degrees F) outdoor temperature;
all facilities occupied less than 168 hours per week must be equipped with a temperature
setback to a maximum of 10 degrees C (50 degrees F) during all unoccupied periods. Small
offices or duty stations located within larger unheated or partially heated buildings (e.g.,
warehouse office, dispatch office in a motor pool, duty room in an armory or reserve facility)
requiring less than 4kW (15,000 Btu per hour) may use electric resistance heating under the
conditions outlined above.
(3) Noncritical Fuel Areas. In geographical areas where at least 85 percent of the power
is generated from noncritical sources such as hydroelectric, nuclear, or geothermal, electric
resistance heating may be considered as an alternative in the life cycle cost analysis, provided
energy budgets outlined in e(2) above are not exceeded and high-limit thermostats and setback
controls are installed. Heat should be generated "off peak" through storage of low- or medium-
temperature water and should be used directly or indirectly as a source for a water source heat
pump or a combination of the above.
3-3. COOLING SYSTEMS.
a. Chilled Water. Determine the optimum supply and return water temperature differential
by life cycle cost analysis.
b. Cooled Air. To the extent practical, minimize system airflow. Use integrated air
conditioning and lighting systems whenever the general lighting level is 1000 lux (100 foot-
candles) or greater.
3-4. COMFORT VENTILATION. Gravity ventilation is rarely adequate as a reliable source for
comfort ventilation. It can be used in high-bay areas that are rarely occupied, such as storage
buildings, or in areas that are difficult to ventilate, such as hangars. Consider nighttime air
flushing of spaces, multi-speed fans, increased insulation, improved shading, and building site
to improve the effectiveness of comfort ventilation. If a waiver to provide air conditioning in an
area not authorized is submitted in accordance with paragraph 1-5, an hour-by-hour simulation
of indoor conditions using comfort ventilation only will be included in the waiver request.